Andy's World Automobile Industry

What has Porsche got to do with Suzuki? Chrysler with Ferrari? Jaguar with Tata?

Consolidation of the global automobile industry is moving forward at a breathtaking pace. In 2011, the top ten groups

  1. General Motors (annual production 9.1 mio. vehicles)
  2. Volkswagen (8.2 mio.)
  3. Toyota (8.1 mio.)
  4. Renault-Nissan (7.4 mio.)
  5. Hyundai-Kia (6.6 mio.)
  6. Ford (4.9 mio.)
  7. Fiat-Chrysler (4.4 mio.)
  8. Peugeot-Citroën (3.6 mio.)
  9. Honda (2.9 mio.)
  10. Suzuki-Maruti (2.7 mio.)

accounted for almost three quarters of the world-wide production of 78.8 mio. vehicles. Even more impressive, the top 5 players alone made up for half of the global market.

But this is only one part of the story. An ever increasing number of vehicles with well-known brand names are actually manufactured by joint ventures or as license productions in China, India, and other newly industrialized countries. For example, production of SAIC and its joint ventures reached 3.6 mio. vehicles, which would easily place it in the global top ten.

Over the last decades, we have seen a large number of mergers and acquisitions in the US, Europe, Japan, and more recently, Korea. It does not need much prophecy to expect the same especially among the dozens of Chinese manufacturers. Very likely, strong local brands such as Geely or Tata will eventually become visible in other parts of the world. And, believe it or not, SAIC has started to buy GM ...

The increasingly complex structure of the industry is illustrated on this page.

This page is also available in German.

Layout

The structure of an independent company is shown as follows:

independent company
brands, divisions, controlled companies other interests

This general layout may also be cascaded. The predominant kind of product is indicated using different colors:

Major overseas subsidiaries with a substantial local manufacturing capacity (usually at least 100000 units) are also included. Joint ventures are indicated by lighter colors.

Whereever available, the better known brand names are used instead of the official company names. This leads to some important simplifications: For example, no distinction is made between the "Ford Motor Company" and its "Ford" division (this is only a matter of internal organization, anyway). Names not appearing on vehicle badges, such as Daimler or GM, are set in italics. Companies are listed in alphabetical order. Click on names to go to the respective company web pages.

Details given for a company may include location of its headquarter, shares held by its parent company, production in thousands for 2010, and a list of selected production sites (in brackets). Vehicles are counted according to the brand name used, so a Toyota made by TPCA in Czechia is counted as a Toyota, and a Volkswagen made by Shanghai Volkswagen is counted as a Volkswagen. For states and provinces, the official abbreviations are used.

Companies

Aixam
Aix-les-Bains, France
est. in 1983




AMW
Mumbai, MH, India
est. in 2005




Arash
Newmarket, England
est. in 1999




Ashok Leyland
Chennai, TN, India
91
Avia
Prague, Czechia
acquired in 2006




Aston Martin
Gaydon, Warwickshire, England
est. in 1913




Avtotor
Kaliningrad, Russia
BMW
assembly
GM
assembly
Kia
assembly




Beijing Automotive Group (BAIC, Beiqi)
Beijing, China
690 (not including Daimler, Hyundai)
Beijing Automobile Works (BAW)
Beijing, China
BAIC Motor
Beijing, China
Foton
Beijing, China
est. in 1996
Beijing Benz
Beijing, China
51%
est. in 1984
Beijing Hyundai
Beijing, China




Bertone
Turin, Italy




Bitter
Ennepetal, Germany
est. in 1971




BMC
Izmir, Turkey
est. in 1964




BMW
Munich, Germany
1738
(Dingolfing, Leipzig, Munich, Regensburg)
BMW
Spartanburg, SC, USA
BMW
Berlin, Germany
Mini
Cowley, England
acquired in 1994
Rolls-Royce
Goodwood, England
acquired in 1998/2003
Brilliance BMW
Shenyang, LN, China
Husqvarna
Varese, Italy
Zinoro
brand




Bosch
Stuttgart, Germany




BredaMenarinibus
Bologna, Italy




Brilliance
Shenyang, LN, China
456 (not including BMW)
Brilliance BMW
Shenyang, LN, China
Jinbei
Shenyang, LN, China
Zhonghua
Shenyang, LN, China
Zinoro
brand
est. in 2013




Bristol
London, England
(Filton)
est. in 1946




Build Your Dream (BYD)
Shenzhen, GD, China
450
est. in 2003
Denza
Shenzhen, GD, China
est. in 2012




Caterham
Caterham, England




Changan
Chongqing, China
682 (not including Ford, Suzuki)
Changan Ford
Chongqing, China
50%
Changan Suzuki
Chongqing, China
51%




Changhe
Jingdezhen, JX, China
Changhe Suzuki
Jingdezhen, JX, China




Chery
Wuhu, AH, China
637
est. in 1997
Riich (Ruiqi)
brand
est. in 2010
Rely (Weilin)
brand
est. in 2010
Qoros
Shanghai, China
50%
est. in 2007




China Motor
xxx, Taiwan
Fujian Benz
Fuzhou, FJ, China
Soueast
Fuzhou, FJ, China
25%




Daewoo Bus
Busan, Korea
est. in 1955
Guilin Daewoo
Guilin, China
est. in 1994




Daimler
Stuttgart, Germany
1528
Freightliner
Portland, OR, USA
acquired in 1981
FUSO
Kawasaki, Japan
85% acquired in 2003-2005
Mercedes-Benz
brand
(Bremen, Düsseldorf, Gaggenau, Ludwigsfelde, Mannheim, Rastatt, Sindelfingen, Ulm, Untertürkheim, Wörth)
Setra
Ulm, Germany
Smart
brand
(Hambach, France)
BAIC Motor
Beijing, China
12% acquired in 2013
Denza
Shenzhen, GD, China
est. in 2012
Fujian Benz
Fuzhou, FJ, China
50%
est. in 2007
KAMAZ
Naberezhnye Chelny, Russia
10% acquired in 2008
MTU
Friedrichshafen, Germany
22.3% acquired in 2008
Nissan
Yokohama, Japan
3.1% acquired in 2010
Renault
Boulogne-Billancourt, France
3.1% acquired in 2010
Tesla
San Carlos, CA, USA
10% acquired in 2009
Thomas Built Buses
High Point, NC, USA
acquired in 1998
Western Star
Kelowna, BC, Canada
acquired in 2000
AMG
Affalterbach, Germany
BharatBenz
Oragadam, TN, India
opened in 2012
Mercedes-Benz
East London, South Africa
Mercedes-Benz
Vitoria, Spain
Mercedes-Benz
Tuscaloosa, AL, USA
Beijing Benz
Beijing, China
49%
est. in 1984




David Brown
Coventry, England
launched in 2014




Dongfeng
Wuhan, HB, China
1095
Dongfeng Honda
xxx, China
50%
Dongfeng Nissan
xxx, China
50%
Dongfeng Yueda Kia
xxx, China
50%
DPCA
Wuhan, HB, China
est. in 1992
Peugeot
Paris, France
14% acquired in 2014




Donkervoort
Lelystad, The Netherlands
est. in 1978




Eicher
New Delhi, India
est. in 1982
Royal Enfield
Chennai, TN, India
est. in 1955
VECV
Gurgaon, HR, India
50%




Equus
Rochester Hills, MI, USA
opened in 2013




Eterniti
London, England




FIAT
Turin, Italy
2400 (not including Chrysler)
Abarth
xxx, Italy
est. in 1949
acquired in 1971
Alfa Romeo
Milano, Italy
acquired in 1986
Chrysler
Auburn Hills, MI, USA
100% acquired 2009-2014
2005
(Belvidere, IL, Detroit, MI, Sterling Heights, MI, Toledo, OH, Warren, MI)
Ferrari
Maranello, Italy
85%
acquired since 1969
FIAT
Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
FIAT
Tychy, Poland
Lancia
Turin, Italy
acquired in 1969
IVECO
xxx, Italy
est. in 1975
Magneti Marelli
Corbetta, Italy
Maserati
Modena, Italy
acquired in 1993
SEVEL
Atessa, Italy
SEVEL Nord
Valenciennes, France
TOFAS
Bursa, Turkey
50%
est. in 1968
GAC FIAT
Changsha, HN, China
to be opened in 2012
Chrysler
Windsor, ON, Canada
Chrysler
Toluca, Mexico
Dodge
est. in 1914, acquired in 1928
Jeep
Ram
Heuliez
xxx, France
Karosa
Vysoke Myto, Czechia
Orlandi Naveco
Nanjing, JS, China




First Automobile Works (FAW)
Changchun, JL, China
621 (not including Mazda, Toyota, Volkswagen)
FAW-Mazda
Changchun, JL, China
FAW-Volkswagen
Changchun, JL, China
60%
est. in 1991
Haima
Haikou, HI, China
Tianjin Toyota
Tianjin, China
50%
est. in 2000




Force
Pune, MH, India




Ford
Dearborn, MI, USA
4873
(Avon Lake, OH, Chicago, IL, Claycomo, MO, Louisville, KY, Wayne, MI)
Auto Alliance
Rayong, Thailand
50%
Ford
Genk, Belgium
Ford
xxx, Brazil
Ford
xxx, Canada
Ford
Cologne, Germany
(Cologne, Saarlouis)
Ford
xxx, Mexico
(Hermosillo, Cuautitlán)
Ford
Valencia, Spain
Ford Ford Lio Ho
xxx, Taiwan
70%
Lincoln
Changan Ford
Chongqing, China
50%
Jiangling
Nanchang, JX, China
30%
Visteon
Van Buren Township, MI, USA
est. in 1997




Fujian
Fuzhou, FJ, China
est. in 1992
Fujian Benz
Fuzhou, FJ, China
Soueast
Fuzhou, FJ, China
est. in 1995
King Long
Xiamen, China
13%




GAC
Guangzhou, GD, China
GAC Changfeng
Changsha, HN, China
GAC FIAT
Changsha, HN, China
to be opened in 2012
Gonow
Taizhou, ZJ, China
51%
Guangqi Honda
Guangzhou, GD, China
50%
GAC Mitsubishi
Guangzhou, GD, China
50%
est. in 2012
GAC Toyota
Guangzhou, GD, China
opened in 2006




GAZ
Nishny Novgorod, Russia
121




Geely
Linhai, ZJ, China
903
est. in 1997
Emgrand
brand
est. in 2009
Gleagle
brand
est. in 2009
Shanghai Englon
brand
est. in 2009
Volvo
Gothenburg, Sweden
est. in 1927
acquired in 2010
(Torslanda)
Volvo
Gent, Belgium




General Motors (GM)
Detroit, MI, USA
9146
(Arlington, TX, Bowling Green, KY, Delta Township, MI, Flint, MI, Hamtramck, MI, Lansing, MI, Lordstown, OH, Orion Township, MI, Roanoke, IN, Tarrytown, NY, Wentzville, MO)
Buick
division
Cadillac
division
Chevrolet
division
GM Korea (ex Daewoo)
Incheon, Korea
70.1%
(Changwon, Incheon, Kunsan)
GM
xxx, Brazil
GM
Oshawa, ON, Canada
GM
Ramos Arizpe, Mexico
GMC
division
Holden
Melbourne, Australia
Opel
Rüsselsheim, Germany
acquired in 1929
(Bochum, Eisenach, Kaiserslautern, Rüsselsheim)
Vauxhall
Luton, England
acquired in 1924
GM-Avtovaz
Togliatti, Russia
42%
est. in 2001
Shanghai General Motors
Shanghai, China
49%
GM Uzbekistan
Asaka, Uzbekistan
25%
Wuling
Liuzhou, GX, China
34%
Opel
Gliwice, Poland
Opel
Zagagoza, Spain




Ginaf
Veenendaal, The Netherlands




Great Wall
Baoding, HE, China
487
est. in 1984
Great Wall
Bahovitsa, Bulgaria
opened in 2012




Gumpert
Altenburg, Germany




Hafei
Harbin, HL, China
est. in 1994




Hindustan
Kolkata, WB, India
(Uttarpara, Tiruvallur, Pithampur)




Honda
Tokyo, Japan
2909
(Hamamatsu, Sayama, Suzuka)
Acura
brand
Honda
Swindon, England
Honda
xxx, Taiwan
Honda
Marysville, OH, USA
opened in 1979
Honda
Lincoln, AL, USA
opened in 2001
Honda Dongfeng Honda
xxx, China
50%
Guangqi Honda
Guangzhou, GD, China
50%




Hyundai
Seoul, Korea
6617
(Asan, Chonju, Ulsan)
est. in 1967
HMMA
Montgomery, AL, USA
opened in 2005
Hyundai
Nošovice, Czechia
opened in 2008
Hyundai
Chennai, TN, India
est. in 1996
Hyundai Assan Otomotiv
Istanbul, Turkey
opened in 1997
Kia
Seoul, Korea
51% acquired in 1998
(Hwasung, Kwangju, Sohari)
est. in 1944
Beijing Hyundai
Beijing, China
Kia
Zilina, Slovakia
opened in 2006
KMMG
West Point, GA, USA
opened in 2009
Dongfeng Yueda Kia
xxx, China
50%




International (Navistar)
Chicago, IL, USA
89




International Application Technology (IAT)
xxx, China




Invicta
xxx, England
re-est. in 2004




Iran Khodro
Tehran, Iran
235
Hyundai
license production
Mercedes-Benz
license production
Peugeot
license production




Irizar
Ormaiztegi, Spain




Isuzu
Tokyo, Japan
481




JAC (Anhui Jianghuai)
Hefei, AH, China
479
est. in 1964




Jiangling (JMC)
Nanchang, JX, China
178
opened in 1997
Landwind
brand




KAMAZ
Naberezhnye Chelny, Tatarstan, Russia
est. in 1969




King Long
Xiamen, China
est. in 1988
Higer
Jiangsu, China
est. in 1998




Koenigsegg
Ängelholm, Sweden
est. in 1993




Lada
Togliatti, Russia
636
GM-Avtovaz
Togliatti, Russia
42%
est. in 2001




Lifan
Chongqing, China
est. in 1992
206




Magna
Aurora, ON, Canada
Magna Steyr
Graz, Austria




Mahindra
Mumbai, MH, India
405
Reva
Bangalore, KA, India
est. in 1994
acquired in 2010
SsangYong
Pyungtaek, Korea
est. in 1954
acquired in 2011
(Changwon, Pyungtaek)




MAN
Munich, Germany
MAN
Vienna, Austria
(Steyr, Vienna)
MAN
Pithampur, MP, India
est. in 2006
MAN
Starachowice, Poland
acquired in 1999
Neoplan
Stuttgart, Germany
acquired in 2000
VW
Resende, RJ, Brazil
acquired in 2009
Scania
Södertälje, Sweden
11.5%
acquired in 2006
Sinotruk
Jinan, SD, China
25%
acquired in 2009




Marcopolo
xxx, , Brazil
Volare
brand




Mastretta
Mexico City, Mexico




Mazda
Hiroshima, Japan
1166
Auto Alliance
Rayong, Thailand
50%
FAW-Mazda
Changchun, JL, China
Haima
Haikou, HI, China




MCI (Motor Coach Industries)
Schaumburg, IL, USA




Michelin
Clermont-Ferrand, France
est. in 1889




Mitsubishi
Tokyo, Japan
1140
(Mizushima, Nagoya)
Mitsubishi
xxx, Philippines
51%
Mitsubishi
xxx, Thailand
Mitsubishi
Normal, IL, USA
China Motor
xxx, Taiwan
13.9%
GAC Mitsubishi
Changsha, HN, China
50%
Soueast
Fuzhou, FJ, China
25%




Mitsuoka
Tokyo, Japan




Mobius
Nairobi, Kenya
est. in 2014




Morgan
Malvern Link, England




Moskvitch
Moscow, Russia




NICE
London, England
est. in 2006




Noble
Leicester, England




Oshkosh
Oshkosh, WI, USA




Paccar
Bellevue, WA, USA
121
DAF
Eindhoven, The Netherlands
acquired in 1996
Kenworth
Peterbilt




Pagani
San Cesario sul Panaro, Italy
est. in 1988




Perodua
Rawang, Malaysia




Peugeot (PSA)
Paris, France
3582
Citroën
Neuilly sur Seine, France
90% acquired in 1974-1976
Faurecia
Nanterre, France
71%
Peugeot
Trnava, Slovakia
Peugeot
xxx, Spain
SEVEL
Atessa, Italy
SEVEL Nord
Valenciennes, France
TPCA
Kolin, Czechia
50%
opened in 2005
DPCA
Wuhan, HB, China
est. in 1992




Pininfarina
Turin, Italy




Premier
Mumbai, MH, India
(Chinchwad, MH)
Zotye
license production




Proton
Shah Alam, Malaysia
205
Lotus
Norwich, England
acquired in 1996




Rába
Gyõr, Hungary




Renault
Boulogne-Billancourt, France
2825 (not including Nissan)
Dacia
Bucharest, Romania
99% acquired since 1999
(Pitesi)
Nissan
Yokohama, Japan
43.2% acquired in 1999-2002
4632
(Fukuoka, Iwaki, Utsunomiya, Yokohama, Yokosuka)
Oyak-Renault
Bursa, Turkey
51%
est. in 1971
Renault
Novo Mesto, Slovenia
Renault
xxx, Spain
Samsung
Seoul, Korea
70.1% acquired in 2000
(Busan)
Daimler
Stuttgart, Germany
1.6% acquired in 2010
Lada
Togliatti, Russia
25% acquired in 2007
Volvo
Göteborg, Sweden
20% acquired in 2000
Datsun
brand
relaunch in 2013
Infiniti
Hong Kong, China
brand
est. in 1989
Nissan
Sunderland, England
Nissan
Aguascalientes, Mexico
Nissan
Barcelona, Spain
Nissan
xxx, Thailand
Nissan
Smyrna, TN, USA
Daimler
Stuttgart, Germany
1.6% acquired in 2010
Dongfeng Nissan
xxx, China
50%
Renault
Boulogne-Billancourt, France
15% acquired in 2002
Yulon
xxx, Taiwan
25%




Ruf
Pfaffenhausen, Germany
est. in 1939




SAAB
Trollhättan, Sweden
relaunch in 2013




Saipa
670
Tehran, Iran
Citroën
license production
Kia
license production




Saleen
Irvine, CA, USA
est. in 1983




Schaeffler
Herzogenaurach, Germany
Continental
Hannover, Germany
VDO
Schwalbach, Germany
acquired in 2007




Shaanxi
Xian, SN, China
Eurostar
brand




Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC)
Shanghai, China
450 (not including GM, Volkswagen)
Nanjing (NAC)
Nanjing, JS, China
acquired in 2007
Roewe
brand
est. in 2006
Shanghai General Motors
Shanghai, China
51%
Shanghai Volkswagen
Shanghai, China
50%
Sunwin
Shanghai, China
50%
Wuling
Liuzhou, GX, China
51%
GM
Detroit, MI, USA
1.0% acquired in 2010
GM Korea
Incheon, Korea
9.7% acquired in 2002
MG
Longbridge, England
acquired in 2005
Naveco
Nanjing, JS, China
Yuejin
brand




Shuanghuan
Shijiazhuang, HE, China
est. in 1988




Sinotruk
Jinan, SD, China
106




Sisu
Karjaa, Finland




Solaris
Owinska, Poland
est. in 1994




Spyker
Zeewolde, The Netherlands
est. in 1999




Subaru
Tokyo, Japan
580
SIA
Lafayette, IN, USA
est. in 1987




Suzuki
Hamamatsu, Japan
2726
Maruti
New Delhi, India
54%
est. in 1981
Pak Suzuki
Karachi, Pakistan
73%
est. in 1983
Suzuki
Esztergom, Hungary
est. in 1993
Suzuki Changan Suzuki
Chongqing, China
35%
Changhe Suzuki
Jingdezhen, JX, China
GM Korea
Incheon, Korea
15% acquired in 2002
(Changwon, Incheon, Kunsan)




Tango
Spokane, WA, USA




Tata
Pune, MH, India
1061
est. in 1945
Tata Daewoo
Kunsan, Korea
acquired in 2004
Jaguar
Whitley, England
est. in 1922, acquired in 2008
(Birmingham, Liverpool)
Land Rover
Solihull, England
est. in 1948, acquired in 2008
Tata Hispano
Zaragoza, Spain
acquired in 2005-2010




Tatra
Koprivnice, Czechia




Tecnobus
Frosinone, Italy




Temsa
Adana, Turkey
est. in 1968




Tesla
San Carlos, CA, USA




Toyota
Toyota City, Japan
8050 (including Daihatsu, Hino)
(Hekinan, Miyoshi, Tahara, Toyota City)
Daihatsu
Osaka, Japan
51.6%
Hino
Tokyo, Japan
50.1%
Kuozui
xxx, Taiwan
Lexus
Nagoya, Japan
launched in 1989
Panasonic EV Energy
Kosai, Shizuoka, Japan
60%
est. in 1996
Scion
brand
launched in 2003
TMMC
Cambridge, ON, Canada
TMMF
Valenciennes, France
TMMK
Georgetown, KY, USA
TMMTX
San Antonio, TX, USA
TMUK
Burnaston, England
Toyota
xxx, Thailand
TPCA
Kolin, Czechia
50%
opened in 2005
Aisin
Kariya, Aichi, Japan
30%
Denso
Aichi, Japan
GAC Toyota
Guangzhou, GD, China
opened in 2006
Subaru
Tokyo, Japan
10% acquired in 2005
Tianjin Toyota
Tianjin, China
42%
est. in 2000
Yamaha
Iwata City, Japan
4.6%




UAZ
Ulianovsk , Russia




Ural
Miass , Russia




UzAvtosanoat
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
GM Uzbekistan
Asaka, Uzbekistan
75%




Valmet
Uusikaupunki, Finland




Van Hool
Lier, Belgium




VDL
Valkenswaard, The Netherlands
VDL NedCar
Born, The Netherlands
acquired in 2013




Volkswagen (VW)
Wolfsburg, Germany
8157 (not including Porsche)
(Dresden, Emden, Hannover, Osnabrück, Wolfsburg, Zwickau)
Audi
Ingolstadt, Germany
acquired in 1966
(Ingolstadt, Neckarsulm)
Bentley
Crewe, England
acquired in 1998
Bugatti
Molsheim, France
acquired in 1998
relaunch in 2005
MAN
Munich, Germany
56% acquired since 2006
Porsche
Stuttgart, Germany
127
acquired in 2009-2012
(Stuttgart, Leipzig)
Scania
Södertälje, Sweden
72%
acquired in 2000-2009
SEAT
Barcelona, Spain
100% acquired in 1986-1990
(Barcelona, Martorell)
Škoda
Mladá Boleslav, Czechia
100% acquired in 1990-2000
VW
Brussels, Belgium
VW
xxx, Brazil
(Anchieta, SP, Resende, RJ, Taubaté, SP)
VW
Puebla, Mexico
VW
Poznan, Poland
VW
Palmela, Portugal
VW
Kaluga, Russia
VW
Bratislava, Slovakia
VW
Pamplona, Spain
VW
Chattanooga, TN, USA
opened in 2011
FAW-Volkswagen
Changchun, JL, China
30%
est. in 1991
Shanghai Volkswagen
Shanghai, China
50%
Suzuki
Hamamatsu, Japan
19.9% acquired in 2010
Audi
Gyõr, Hungary
est. in 1993
Ducati
Bologna, Italy
acquired in 2012
Lamborghini
Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy
acquired in 1998
FAW-Volkswagen
Changchun, JL, China
10%
est. in 1991
Skoda
Aurangabad, MH, India
(Aurangabad, MH, Chakan, MH)
est. in 2001




Volvo
Gothenburg, Sweden
316
est. in 1927
Mack
Allentown, PA, USA
100% acquired in 2001
Prevost
Ste. Claire, QC, Canada
51% acquired in 1995
Renault Trucks
Saint Priest, France
100% acquired in 2001
UD Trucks
Ageo City, Japan
100%
acquired in 2006-2007
Sunwin
Shanghai, China
50%
VECV
Gurgaon, HR, India
50%




Wanxiang
Hangzhou, China
Fisker
Irvine, CA, USA
acquired in 2014




Wiesmann
Dülmen, Germany




Yaxing
Yangzhou, JS, China




Yulon
xxx, Taiwan
Luxgen
brand
est. in 2009
China Motor
xxx, Taiwan
8%




Yutong
Zhengzhou, HA, China
est. in 1963




Zotye
xxx, ZJ, China




References

Details given here were collected from the respective company web pages, and the following sources:

  1. Auto Motor und Sport (in German)

  2. Der Spiegel (in German)

  3. Die Welt (in German)

  4. Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association

  5. L'Automobile Magazine (in French)

  6. Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles

  7. The Korea Herald

  8. James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, Daniel Roos, The Machine that changed the World: The Story of Lean Production. Harper Perennial, New York, 1991

About ...

Thanks to Ali (Alberzell), Chandresh (), Hajo (Montgomery, AL), Isa (Villingen-Schwenningen), Jason (Taichung), Johannes (Saarbrücken), Kristine (London), Mayumi (Fukuoka), Norio (Tokyo), Peter (North Ferrisburg, VT), and Wolf (Las Vegas, NV) for helpful comments!

[Motigo]

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Last changes: June 18, 2014. This page is hosted by mySTD.de